Entidades pedem veto de MPs que reduzem áreas protegidas na Amazônia

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No Dia Mundial do Meio Ambiente, celebrado nesta segunda-feira (5), entidades da sociedade civil e governamentais pedem ao presidente Michel Temer que vete integralmente as Medidas Provisórias (MPs) 756/2016 e 758/2016, que tratam da alteração de limites da Floresta Nacional de Jamanxim e do Parque Nacional de Jamanxim, no oeste do Pará.

Para o diretor executivo do WWF-Brasil, Maurício Voivodic, sancionar essas MPs abre um precedente muito perigoso para que outras áreas protegidas na Amazônia venham a ser reduzidas.

“Mais do que o efeito no local de se reduzir essas áreas, isso é uma mensagem muito ruim que o governo passa para a sociedade de que a atividade ilegal de grilagem, de madeireiros ilegais que está realmente acontecendo em uma dessa áreas, vai ser premiada com a redução dessa área protegida. Ou seja, se você grilar um área protegida, o governo depois reduz essa proteção e dá a área que você grilou”, disse ele.

Segundo Voivodic, as áreas protegidas deveriam aumentar já que o Brasil tem compromissos internacionais, firmado em convenções do clima e da biodiversidade. “Nos últimos dois anos, a taxa de desmatamento na Amazônia aumentou 60%. Mas dentre esses compromissos o principal é reduzir o desmatamento, reduzir as emissões. Só que com esse sinal vai realmente na direção oposta do que o Brasil vinha se propondo e do que o brasileiro quer, que é uma Amazônia protegida”, afirmou.

Acordo de Paris

Entre as metas brasileiras no Acordo de Paris sobre mudanças climáticas está zerar o desmatamento ilegal na Amazônia e recuperar 12 milhões de hectares de florestas. As MPs retiram de proteção 406 mil hectares da Floresta Nacional do Jamanxim, no Pará, e 102 mil hectares do Parque Nacional do Jamanxim, na mesma região, além de 10 mil hectares do Parque Nacional de São Joaquim, em Santa Catarina.  A perda refere-se a uma área equivalente a quatro vezes o município de São Paulo ou o território do Distrito Federal.

O Ministério do Meio Ambiente (MMA)  e o Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade (ICMBio) também pediram veto às MPs. “A área onde se localiza Jamanxim tem sido palco de frequentes conflitos fundiários e de atividades ilegais de extração de madeira e minérios, associadas à grilagem de terra e à ausência de regramento ambiental, com reflexos na escalada da criminalidade e da violência contra agentes públicos. Os textos aprovados prejudicam a implantação das políticas de governo adequadas para enfrentar essas questões”, diz o MMA, em nota, lembrando também que a valorização da floresta em pé têm importância central nos compromissos assumidos no Acordo de Paris.

Coalização pede que MPs sejam vetadas

A Coalizão Brasil Clima, Florestas e Agricultura, movimento composto por empresas e entidades do agronegócio, também solicitou, em carta ao presidente Michel Temer, que vete as MPs aprovadas pelo Congresso Nacional. O grupo entende que as medidas colocam em risco a reputação do próprio agronegócio brasileiro, que tem se esforçado para vender uma imagem internacional “verde”. “As medidas aprovadas pelo Senado afetarão a segurança jurídica e prejudicarão os investimentos no país, afastando investidores e consumidores exigentes de sistemas produtivos sustentáveis”, diz a carta.

“A aprovação dessas MPs vai na direção contrária à proteção do meio ambiente e ao combate ao desmatamento crescente nos biomas brasileiros e compromete a credibilidade das necessárias iniciativas de desenvolvimento econômico no País. Essas medidas, que trazem danos irreparáveis à biodiversidade e ao clima, resultarão no beneficiamento de alguns poucos indivíduos em detrimento do interesse nacional”, afirma a carta da Coalizão, argumentando ainda que a regularização fundiária de áreas que apresentaram desmatamento ilegal não pode ser autorizada pelo governo.

Cálculos do Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazônia (Ipam), citados pela Coalizão, indicam que, até 2030, a redução da floresta nacional pode resultar em 140 milhões de toneladas de CO2 (dióxido de carbono, também conhecido como gás carbônico) a mais na atmosfera. Isso equivale a mais do que o dobro de tudo o que todos os automóveis do Brasil emitiram em 2015.

Segundo o diretor executivo do WWF-Brasil, o texto aprovado no Congresso e que está pronto para sanção presidencial, descaracteriza o propósito original das medidas provisórias encaminhadas pelo governo federal, que era de substituição de uma área da floresta nacional por uma unidade de conservação menos restritiva, só que compensando com o aumento de área do parque nacional, que é de maior restrição. Ao chegar à Câmara dos Deputados, a medida foi modificada, diminuindo as áreas protegidas.

Texto foi alterado

“Até antes de apresentar as medidas, o texto que o MMA estava defendendo já foi modificado por forças no próprio Executivo, de outros ministérios, mas continuou com a lógica de uma compensação. Quando o MMA começou essa conversa, várias Organizações Não Governamentais, inclusive o WWF, alertaram que isso não ia terminar bem. Ao entrar em um Congresso como esse que temos hoje, com troca de favores, interesse para além do interesse nacional, é esse tipo de coisa que acontece. O MMA abriu a conversa com uma lógica interessante, mas avaliou mal os riscos políticos”, disse Voivodic.

Celebrando o Dia Mundial do Meio Ambiente, hoje, está previsto que o presidente Michel Temer assine um decreto presidencial ampliando a área do Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Veadeiros, em Goiás, e apresente outras medidas de preservação. “Estamos muitos felizes com esses sinais dados. É o caminhos que queremo. Mas a criação de novas áreas protegidas no Brasil não pode se tornar compensação para redução de áreas na Amazônia. Para manter a consistência, espero que ele anuncie essa nova áreas e anuncie o veto”, disse o diretor executivo do WWF-Brasil. O presidente Temer tem até o dia 19 de junho para sancionar ou vetar as MPs.

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