Vital Brazil produz mais de 130 mil doses de antídotos por ano

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Carlos Magno / Governo do Estado

O quase centenário Instituto Vital Brazil (IVB), fundado em 1919, em Niterói, se mantém ainda hoje como pioneiro na pesquisa científica e produção de antídotos contra picada de animais peçonhentos (cobras, aranhas e escorpiões), além de outros medicamentos e vacinas. Em 2016, foram produzidas e distribuídas, via Ministério da Saúde, 132.310 ampolas, tanto desses soros quanto de doses de antirrábicas e antitetânicas. Agora, em fase de testes, os pesquisadores do IVB trabalham em um soro antiapílico – contra picada de abelhas.

O Vital Brazil também é único produtor brasileiro do soro contra o veneno da aranha viúva-negra. No Brasil, por ano, os casos de acidentes com animais peçonhentos são altos: 80 mil de escorpiões; 30 mil de aranha; e 30 mil de serpentes. No Estado do Rio de Janeiro, acidentes com serpentes são os mais comuns, sendo registrados cerca de 700 casos por ano, causados por picadas de jararacas, cascavéis, corais verdadeiras e surucucus.

Engana-se quem pensa que só em zonas rurais acontecem esses acidentes. Na capital, há muitos casos registrados – e não apenas entre os trilheiros.

“Esses animais acabam vivendo próximo à população. Os acidentes nas grandes cidades vêm aumentando por causa do crescimento desordenado, com o ser humano ocupando lugares que antes eram áreas de matas. E com a produção de lixo, aparecem ratos, que é o principal alimento das cobras peçonhentas; e baratas, que são os alimentos de escorpiões e aranhas”, explicou Claudio Machado, biólogo e Chefe da Divisão de Herpetologia do Vital Brazil.
Reconhecimento internacional

As descobertas do cientista Vital Brazil lhe garantiram reconhecimento internacional. Entre elas, a de que, no lugar de um soro universal, o ideal era que existisse um antídoto para cada veneno de serpente. Por isso, o instituto tem um cuidado constante em oferecer capacitação aos profissionais de saúde, para que saibam identificar o tipo de acidente e aplicar os soros, em caso de necessidade.

“Os sintomas variam de acordo com o tipo de veneno. É necessário que os médicos saibam identificar o grupo de serpentes que causou o acidente para que seja feito o tratamento de forma correta”, exemplificou Claudio Machado.

Hoje, há em torno de 20 polos de atendimento em todo o estado. Na capital, há o Hospital Lourenço Jorge, na Barra. Em Niterói, a unidade é no Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro. No site www.vitalbrazil.rj.gov.br é possível pesquisar o polo mais próximo de cada município que pode socorrer vítimas de peçonhentos. No portal, os profissionais de saúde também podem solicitar o treinamento.

 

O que fazer ao ser vítima de picada de animais peçonhentos:

Lavar o local da picada com água e sabão
Manter o acidentado em repouso. Se a picada for no braço ou na perna, estas extremidades devem ficar levantadas
Levar o acidentado imediatamente ao polo de atendimento mais próximo
O que NÃO fazer ao ser vítima de picada de animais peçonhentos:

Não amarrar ou fazer torniquetes ou garrotes, pois isso impede a circulação do sangue e piora a situação da vítima
Não colocar folhas, pó de café ou quaisquer outras substâncias no local da picada, pois podem provocar infecção
Não fazer cortes no local da picada, nem tentar sugar o veneno
Não permitir a ingestão de bebida alcoólica

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